Music Information Retrieval: Recent Developments and Applications

M. Schedl, E. Gómez and J. Urbano
Foundations and Trends in Information Retrieval, vol. 8, no. 2-3, pp. 127-261, 2014.


We provide a survey of the field of Music Information Retrieval (MIR), in particular paying attention to latest developments, such as semantic auto-tagging and user-centric retrieval and recommendation approaches. We first elaborate on well-established and proven methods for feature extraction and music indexing, from both the audio signal and contextual data sources about music items, such as web pages or collaborative tags. These in turn enable a wide variety of music retrieval tasks, such as semantic music search or music identification ("query by example"). Subsequently, we review current work on user analysis and modeling in the context of music recommendation and retrieval, addressing the recent trend towards user-centric and adaptive approaches and systems. A discussion follows about the important aspect of how various MIR approaches to different problems are evaluated and compared. Eventually, a discussion about the major open challenges concludes the survey.